One of the highlights of many P3s of infrastructure is that most of the pre-financing is supported by the private sector. The way in which this funding is secured varies considerably from country to country. For P3 in the UK, bonds are used instead of bank loans. In Canada, P3 projects typically use loans that must be repaid within 5 years and projects are refinanced at a later date. [8] In some types of public-private partnerships, the costs of using the service are borne exclusively by service users, such as toll road users.B. [2] In other types (notably the PFI), the private sector is invested in capital and the cost of providing services is borne in whole or in part by the state. [29] With the increase in public-private partnership, the responsibility of non-profit organizations tends to increase. Given that some governments rely on many more organizations to provide public services, it is difficult for the government to insinuate that non-profit organizations are responsible. [88] Too many projects and partnerships can also lead to a lack of accountability.

[89] The absence of defined roles of responsibility can also lead to the exploitation of others and to the point of a mistrustful partnership. [90] Many partnerships may be terminated prematurely due to problems of trust and cooperation during the treaty implementation process. These problems can be avoided if the organization has the first guidelines for Dos and Don`ts[91] an ongoing commitment to negotiate in difficult cases and even, if necessary, an overview of termination procedures. [89] Not to be confused with a lower overall cost, value for money is a concept that evaluates P3 offers for private partners against a hypothetical public sector comparison provider, which must align the costs of an entirely public option (in terms of design, construction, financing and operation). P3 value for money take into account a number of costs whose exact nature has changed over time and varies according to competence. One of the things that remains consistent is to focus on “risk transfer” to the private partner at the expense of the public sector comparator. [8] Chapter 1 While initiated in the first world countries, P3s immediately received a great deal of attention in transformation economies, as they promised to create new sources of funding for infrastructure projects that could translate into jobs and growth. However, the lack of investor law guarantees, trade secrecy laws, state spending on public infrastructure, and the ability to obtain basic revenues from user fees have made it more difficult to implement a public-private partnership in transformation economies.