The agreement is the result of a renegotiation between the member states of the North American Free Trade Agreement, which gave informal agreement on 30 September 2018 and officially on 1 October under the new agreement. [10] The USMCA was proposed by U.S. President Donald Trump and signed on November 30, 2018 by Trump, Mexican President Enrique Pea Nieto and Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau as a secondary event of the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires. A revised version was signed on December 10, 2019 and ratified by the three countries, with final ratification (Canada) taking place on March 13, 2020 just before the Canadian Parliament adjourned due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The agreed text of the agreement was signed by the heads of state and government of the three countries on November 30, 2018, as an incidental event at the 2018 G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina. [34] The English, Spanish and French versions will also be binding and the agreement will take effect after ratification by the three states through the adoption of enabling laws. [35] For the first time, the new agreement also provides that 40 to 45 per cent of parts of a non-tariff vehicle must come from a so-called high-wage plant. These plants must pay at least $16 per hour in average wages for production workers. That`s about three times the average wage at a Mexican plant right now, and government officials hope that this provision will force automakers to buy more supplies from Canada or the United States, or raise wages in Mexico.

One of President Trump`s main goals in the renegotiation is to ensure that the agreement benefits American workers. The United States, Mexico and Canada have approved a laboratory chapter that brings work obligations to the heart of the agreement, makes them fully applicable and is the strongest provisions of any trade agreement. The U.S.-Mexico-Mexico Agreement (USMCA) is a trade agreement between these parties. The USMCA replaced the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). On June 19, 2019, the Mexican Senate ratified the agreement (114 yes, 3 no, 3 abstentions). [88] Mexico`s ratification process will be completed when the President announces its ratification to the Federal Register. The United States, Mexico and Canada have reached an agreement to modernize NAFTA, which is 25 years old, into a high-level agreement of the 21st century. The new agreement between the United States and Mexico-Canada (USMCA) will support mutually beneficial trade, which will lead to freer markets, fairer trade and robust economic growth in North America. The full text of the agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada is available here. In addition to the original NAFTA provisions, the USMCA borrows significant credits under the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreements and the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP).

On April 3, 2020, Mexico announced its willingness to implement the agreement and joined Canada. [15] The agreement came into force on July 1, 2020. [16] [17] [18] [19] The United States, Mexico and Canada have reached agreement on a modernized and highly standardized chapter on intellectual property (IP), which provides effective and robust protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights, which are essential to promoting innovation, stimulating economic growth and supporting American jobs.